As a physical object, a book may be a stack of sometimes rectangular pages (made of papyrus, parchment, vellum, or paper) orientated with one edge tied, sewn, or otherwise fastened along and so certain to the versatile spine of a protective covering of heavier, comparatively inflexible material.[1] The technical term for this physical arrangement is codex (in the plural, codices). In the history of hand-held physical supports for extended written compositions or records, the codex replaces its immediate predecessor, the scroll. A single sheet during a codex is a leaf, and every aspect of a leaf is a page.

As associate intellectual object, a book is prototypically a composition of such nice length that it takes a substantialinvestment of your time to compose and a still considerable, tho’ not therefore extensive, investment of time to read. This sense of book contains a restricted and an unrestricted sense. In the restricted sense, a book may be a self-sufficing section or a {part of} a extended composition, a usage that reflects the very fact that, in antiquity, long works had to be written on many scrolls, and every scroll had to be known by the book it contained. So, for instance, each part of Aristotle’s Physics is termed a book, as of course, the Bible encompasses many various books. In the unrestricted sense, a book is that the integrative whole of that such sections, whether or not called books or chapters or parts, are parts.

The intellectual content in a physical book need not be a composition, nor even be called a book. Books can consist only of drawings, engravings, or photographs, or such things as crossword puzzles or cut-out dolls. In a physical book, the pages can be left blank or can feature an abstract set of lines as support for on-going entries, i.e., an account book, an appointment book, a log book, an autograph book, a notebook, a diary or day book, or a sketchbook. Some physical books are made with pages thick and sturdy enough to support other physical objects, like a scrapbook or photograph album. Books may be distributed in electronic form as e-books and other formats.

Although in ordinary academic parlance a monograph is understood to be a specialist academic work, rather than a reference work on a single scholarly subject, in library and information science monograph denotes more broadly any non-serial publication complete in one volume (book) or a finite number of volumes (even a novel like Proust’s seven-volume In Search of Lost Time), in contrast to serial publications like a magazine, journal, or newspaper. An avid reader or collector of books or a book lover is a bibliophile or colloquially, “bookworm”. A shop where books are bought and sold is a bookshop or bookstore. Books are also sold elsewhere. Books can also be borrowed from libraries. Google has estimated that as of 2010, approximately 130,000,000 distinct titles had been published.[2] In some wealthier nations, the sale of printed books has decreased because of the increased usage of e-books.